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1. What is Windows Programming?
Windows Programming uses GUI concept. It is an event-driven Programming. An
Application Window will respond to the events by generating a message by the Operating
System. It uses graphics for organizing user workspace. Programs that run within
Windows also use GUI. eg : Word, Excel. These application programs use some built- in
functions present in API. 

2. List the main header files in Windows Programming?

3. What is Hungarian Notation?
The naming convention for windows programming is called as Hungarian Notation. In
this notation the variable names are preceded with key letters. The key letters describe the
type of data the variable represents.
Eg. h handle
The steps required to create a window are,
a. Registering Window Class
b. Create a Window
c. Message Loop
d. Window Procedure 

5. How to register a window class?
Before creating an application window the window class must be registered. Windows
class is registered by calling register class. The function requires a single parameter, which is a pointer to structure of, type WNDCLASS. 

6. What is a window class?
A window is always created using a window class. The window class identifies the
window procedure that processes messages to the window. The window class defines the
window procedure and some other characterizing of window that created based on the

7. How to create a window?
Create window(): This command allows to specify more detailed information about the window.
Syntax:Create window(“szWin Name,”Title”,WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW);

8. Define message loop?
When a windows program begins execution, a window create a “message queue” for the
program; this message queue stores message to all the windows a program; this message
queue stores messages to all the windows a program might create. A window application
includes is short check of code called the message loop to the appropriate window
procedure. A simple message to enters of one function call to each of three function,
GetMessage, TrabslateMessage and DispatchMessage 

9. What is the use of GetMessage?
The GetMessage function retrieves a message from the queue and copies it to a structure to Type MSQ.

10. What is the use of TranslateMessage?
A message Loop include TranslateMessage., if the message loop receive character input 

11. What is the use of Dispatch Message?
The Dispatch Message function sends a message to the window procedure associated
with the window handle specified in the MSG structure. 

12. What are the actions of windows procedure?
The windows procedure is the function named Wndproc. The window procedure
determines what the window displays in its client area the windows responds to user

13. What is WM_PAINT message?
The message informs when a part or all of the windows client area is “invalid” and must
be “updated” which means that it must be redrawn or “painted”. 

14. How does WM_PAINT message is processed?
WM_PAINT processing almost always begin with a call to Begin Paint.
and ends with a call to EndPaint
BeginPaint erases the backround
EndPaint releases the device context handle. 

15. What is WM_DESTROY message?
WM_DESTROY message indicates that a window is in the process of destroying a
window based on a command from the user. The message is a result of the user clicking
on the close button or selecting close from the program’s System message. 

16. How the program is terminated?
When the postQuit message function is invoked it inserts a WM_QUIT message in the
Program’s message queue. GetMessage returns aero for WM_QUIT message. This
causes WinMain to drop put of the Message Loop. The program then returns
msgWParam, The program terminated. 

17. What is GDI?
The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) provides functions and related structures that an
application can use to generate graphical output for displays, printers and other devices.
A keystroke or combination of keystrokes that sends a command message to the specified
application window is called a keyboard accelerator.
The messages generated are,

19. What are the types of messages generated by a mouse?
Two types of messages generated by a mouse.
i) Client area mouse message
ii) Non- client area mouse message 

20. What is a menu? What are its types?
A menu is a GUI, which contains a list of menu items. The types of menu are,
1. System Menus
2. Popup Menu
3. Dropdown Menu

21. What are the functions of message box function?
Message Box function is used to deliver text output to user. The function creates a
window, but it is a special purpose window of limited flexibility. The message box
window has a title bar with a close button an optional icon, one or more lines of text. 

22. What are the fields in MSG structure?
HWND:- The handle to the window which the message is directed to
MWSSAGE:- The message identifier. This is a number that identified the message.
WPARAM:- A 32-bit message parameter the meaning and value of which depend on
the particular message.
LPARAM:- Another 32-bit message parameter dependent on the message.
TIME:- The time the message was place in message queue.
PT:- The mouse coordinates at the time the message was placed. 

23. What are queued and non queued messages?
The queued messaged are those that are placed in a programs message queue by
windows. The non queued messages are posted to a message queue. The non queued 

24. Write short notes on status bar?
The status bar window neither accepts user input nor generates command messages. Its
job is simply to display text in panes under program control the status bar supports two
types of panes.
-Text panes- message line panes
-Status indicator panes 

25. Give some messages used in windows?
WM_CREATE : This message is sent when a window is being created.
WM_LBUTTONDOWN : This message is sent when the user press the left.
WM_CHAR : This message is sent when the user types a character.
WM_CLOSE : This message is sent when the user closes a window.
WM_COMMAND : This message is sent to appropriate window in response to user
menu choices, dialog button clicks and so on. 


1. Define Appwizard
Appwizard is a code generator used to create a working skeleton for the windows with
features source code and features specified through dialog boxes. 

2. What are the types of mapping modes?

3. What is the use of SetMapMode command?
It is used to return the previous mapping mode and sets the mapping mode specified in
the parameter.
Syntax: Virtual int setMapMode(int nMapMode) 

4. List the types of video cards used to display the colors
- 256 color video card(8 bit)
-16 bit color video card
-24 bit color video card 

5. What is resole font?
The system font is the font that windows uses by default for text string like strings in title
bars, menus and dialog boxes. The system font is a razor font which means that the
characters are defined as block of pixels. The size of the character in the system font is
based on the size of title video display. 

6. What is the use of get system metrics function?
The function retrieves information about the size of various graphical item in windows
such as icon, occurs, title bars and scroll bars. This function is an important function for
achieving device independent graphical outline in the program. This needs a single argument called an index. This function returns an integer usually the size of the item specified in the argument. 

7. Explain the display context classes CClientDC and CWindowDC?
Window’s client area excludes the border, the caption bar, and the menu bar. If we
construct an object of class CclientDc, the point(0,0) is at the upper-left corner of the
client area. If we construct an object of class CWindowDC the point(0,0) is the upper- left
corner of the nonclient area. 

8. What is the state of the device context?
The current state of the device context includes the following:
Attached GDI drawing objects such as pens, brushes, and fonts. The mapping mode that determines the scale of items when they are drawn. Various details such as text alignment parameters and polygon filling mode.

9. What are GDI objects?
A window GDI object type is represented by an MFC library class. CGdiObject is the
abstract base for the GDI object classes. A c++ object of a class derived from
CGdiObject represents a windows GDI object. 

10. Mention some of the GDI derived classes?
- CBitmap
- CFont
- CPalette
- CPen
- CRgn 

11. Difference between modal and modeless dialogs?
The VDialog base class supports both modal and modeless dialog. With a modal dialog,
such as file dialog, the user cannot work elsewhere in the same application until the
dialog is closed. With the modeless dialog, the user can work in another window in the application while the dialog remains on the screen. Eg : Find and replace dialog. 

12. What is system modaldialog?
The 16-bit versions of windows support a special kind of modal dialog called a system modal dialog, which prevents the user from switching to another application. Win32 also
supports system modal dialogs but with weird result: the user can switch to another
application, but the dialog remains as the top window. 

13. List some of the COMDLG32 classes?
- CColorDialog
- CFileDialog
- CFindReplaceDialog
- CFontDialog
- CPirntDialog 

14. What are dialog controls?
A dialog contains a number of elements called controls.
Dialog controls include:
Edit controls, Buttons. List boxes, Combo boxes, Static text, Tree views, progress indicators, Sliders.

15. Mention some of the window a common control?
The progress indicator control.
The track bar control.
The spin button control.
The list control.
The tree control. 


1. What is keyboard accelerator?
The keyboard accelerator resource consists of a table of key combinations with associated command ids a keyboard accelerator entry does not have to be associated with a menu item.

2. What are the two text editing tools?
Windows itself supplies two text editing tools edit control and windows rich edit
common control both can be used as controls within dialogs. But both can also be made
to look like view windows. The MFC library supports this versatility with the
THE CEDITVIEW CLASS:- This class is based on the windows edit control so it
inherits all the edit limitations.
THE CRICHEDITVIEW CLASS:- This class is based on the rich edit control so it
supports mixed formats and large quantities of text.

3. What are the steps to be followed to build floating popup menus
i) Use the menu editor to insert a new, empty menu in your project’s resource file.
ii) Type some characters in the left top- level item, and then add your menu item in the resulting pop-up menu.
iii) Use class wizard to add a WM_CONTEXTMENU message handler in your view class that receives mouse-click messages.

4. What are the characteristic of SDI frame window?
SDI (single document interface) frame window has the following characteristic.
-Window Size
-Window Position
-Window status
-Windows Status
-Toolbar and status bar enablement and position.

5. What are the functions that treat registry data as either CString objects or unsigned integers?
- Get profile Int
- Write Profile Int
- Get Profile String
- Write Profile String

6. What are the two CFramewnd member functions?
The MFC library provides two CFrameWnd member functions, save bar state and load
bar state, her saving and loading control bar status to and from the registry the functions
process the size and position of the status bar and docked toolbars. They don’t process the
position of floating toolbars.

7. What is serialization?
The objects can be saved on disk when a program outs and then can be restored when the
program is restarted this process of saving and restarting objects is called serialization.

8. How to make a class sterilization?
A serialization class must be derived directly or indirectly from C Object. In addition, the
class declaration must contain the Declare-serial macro call, and the class implementation
file must contain the implement-serial macro call.

9. Explain splitter window?
A splitter window appears as a special type of frame window that holds several views in
panes the application can split the window on creation, on the user can spilt the window
by choosing a menu command or by dragging a splitter box on the window’s scroll bar.
After the window has been split the user can mouse the splitters to adjust the relative
sizes of the panes it can be used in both SDI and MDI applications.

10. What is dynamic and splitter window?
Dynamic splitter window :- It allows the user to split the windows at any time by
choosing a menu item or debugging a splitter box located on the scroll bar panes in it
generally use the same view class.
Static splitter window :- The panes of a static splitter window are defined when the
window is first created and they cannot be changed. The user can move the bars but
cannot unsplit on resplit the window.

11. What are the resources of splitting the window?
When appwizard generates an application with a splitter frame, it includes a split option
in the project’s view menu. The ID-window-split command Id is mapped in the C view
class within the MFC library.
COM links the EXE components in different process there its remoting arch, which
usually involves remote procedure call(RPCS). In an RPC the client makes a call to a
special DLL called a proxy the proxy sends a stream of data to a stub which is inside a
DLL in the components process when the client calla a component fn….., the proxy allies
the stud by sending a message to the component program, which is processed by a fit den

13. Define DLL
A DLL is basically a file on disk usually with a DLL extension consisting of global data complied functions and resources that becomes part of the process. It is compiled to load at a preferred base address. DLLS are runtime modular and used to write modular software.

14. Define COM (component object model)
COM is a protocol that connects one software module with another and then drops out of the picture. After the Connection is made the two modules can communication through a mechanism called an interface com is an industry standard s/w architecture supported by Microsoft and many other companies.

15. What are dynamic link libraries?
Windows allows dynamic linking, which means that specially constructed libraries can be
loaded and linked at runtime. The MFC developers succeeded in combining all the
application framework classes into a few ready-built DLLs. This means that you can
statically or dynamically link the application framework classes into your application. In
addition, you can create your own extension DLLs that built on the MFC DLLs.

16. Explain the document- view architecture?
The MFC library contains applications and frame classes plus two other classes that
represent the “document” and “view”. This document-view architecture is the core of the
application framework and is loosely based on the Model/view? Controller classes.
Document-view architecture separates data from the user’s view of the data.

17. What is a view?
From a user’s stand point, a view is an ordinary window that the user can size, move, and
close in the same way as any other Windows-based application window. From the
programmer’s perspective, a view is a c++ object of a class derived from the MFC
Single document interface : An SDI application has, from the user’s point of view, only
one window. If the application depends on disk- file “document”, only one document can
be loaded at a time. The original windows notepad is an example of SDI application.
Multi document interface : An MDI application has multiple child windows, each of
which corresponds to an individual document. Microsoft word is a good example of MDI

19. What are the disadvantage of using DLL?
- The programmer must have access to the source code and must be using the same programming language with same compiler setup.
- Memory and disk space will be wasted if several programs which use the same library of code are running simultaneously.

20. What is Load Library() function?
Load Library () call is used to map the DLL module into the memory of your process.
The function takes a single parameter, the name of the module to load.
hMyDll=load Library (“my Lib”);
if (hMyDll=null)
// could not load DLL

21. What is GetProcAddress () function?
The address for the individual functions before using them once the DLL has been loaded
properly. This is done by calling ::GetProcAddress() with the handle returned by
LoadLibrary() and the name of the function. If the function is found this will return a
generic pointer to a function. If the function is not found, GetProcAddress() returns

22. What are the characteristics of SDI frame window supported by CPersistent frame
- Window size
- Window position
- Maximized status
- Minimizes status
- Toolbar and status bar enablement and position.

Unit IV

1 COM provides a unified expandable object oriented communications protocol for windows

i) A standard language-independent way for a win32 client EXE to load and call a win32 DLL.
ii) A general-purpose way for one EXE to control another EXE on the same computer.
A replacement for the VBX control called an active x control.

2. What is the use of IUnknown interface?
I Unknown is a special interface to obtain the interface pointer decaled by com.

3. What is class factory?
A class object is sometimes called as a class factory because it often implements a special
com interface named I class Factory.

4. What is the use of CLSIDFromProgID?
Com supports other types of registration database entry that manufactures a human-
readable program ID into the corresponding Class ID. The com function USI form
program ID reads the database and perform the manipulation.

5. What do the INTERFACE-PART maces do?
The INTERFACE-PART maces generate the nested classes, adding x to the first
parameters form the class name and adding m- x to form the embedded object name.

6. What is the purpose of the DECLARE-INTERFACE-MAP macro?
`The DECLARE-INTERFACE-MAP macro generalizes the declarations for a table
that holds the IDs of the class’s entire interface.

7. List out the four states that an embedded object can assume?
The four states are given below
1) Passive
2) Loaded
3) Running
4) Active

8. What are the special features of container?
v If handle multiple documents
v Allows an embedded object to be deleted  

9. How a COM client calls out-of process components?
In case of an out- of process components COM uses its remoting architecture which
usually involves RPCS (remote procedure calls) in an RPC the client makes calls to a
special dll called a proxy sends a stream of data to a stub which is inside a dll in the
components process when the client calls a components fn the proxy alerts the stub the
mechanism of converting parametts to hard from data streams is called marshaling.

10. Define Object Model.
The Component Object Model specifies architecture, a binary standard and a supporting
infrastructure for building, using and evolving component-based applications. It extends
the benefits of object oriented programming such as encapsulation, polymorphism
software reuse to dynamic computing.

11. What is DCOM?
DCOM stands for Distributed Component Object Model is the distributed extension of
COM. It specifies the additional infrastructure that is required to further extend the
benefits to networked environments.

12. What are main features of COM?
The features of COM include the separation of interfaces and implementations, support
for objects with multiple interfaces, language neutrality, runtime binary software reuse,
location transparency, architecture for extensibility, support for indirection approach to
versioning and different styles of sever lifetime management.

13. Write short notes on Versioning.
COM’s approach to versioning is based on the following three requirements:-
i) Any interface must be unmutable.
ii) A new implementation of same CLSID must support existing interfaces.
iii) Any client must start interacting with a serve by querying an interface with an ID.

14. Define OLE.
OLE stands for Object linking and Embedding. OLE is at the core of window applications. It is also a very complex technology that could be difficult to master without the help of MFC.

15. What are the applications of OLE?
1) Compound documents.
2) OLE controls.
3) OLE automation.
4) OLE drag and drop.
5) Specialized-MAPI.

16. What is marshaling?
In a remote procedure call the client makes calls to proxy. The proxy sends a stream to a
stub. When the client calls the component function the proxy alerts the stub by sending
the message to the component program. The mechanism of converting parameters to and
from data stream is called Marshaling.


1. What are the advantages of using a real DBMS?
1) Use of standard file formats
2) Indexed file access
3) Data integrity safeguards
4) Multi-user access control

2. Expand the following; Blob, SDK, API, ODBC, DAO?
Blob - binary large object
SDK - software development kit
API - application programming interface
ODBC - open database connectivity
DAO - data access object

3. What is process and thread?
A process is a running program that owns its own memory, file handles and other
system resources the separate execution paths that an individual process can
contain are called as threads.

4. What are the two kinds of thread?
Windows offers two kinds of threads namely
i)                  Works threads

5. Define ODBC?
The Microsoft open database connectivity(ODBC) standard defines the rules of
SQL grammar and also the c-language programming interface to any SQL
database any DBMS that has an ODBC driver can be occurred by a single
compiled c or c++ program odbc thus separate the user interface from the actual
database management process.

6. What are the methods of Binary Interface method?
The first three methods are:-
i) Query Interface() for navigating between interfaces of the same object instance.
ii) AddRef() for incrementing reference counts.
iii) Release() for decrementing reference counts.

7. Write short notes on Threading Model.
If an application allows multiple clients to concurrently invoke methods of the
same COM object, some synchronization mechanisms needs to be provided to
protect the data. A part is logical grouping of object that share the same
concurrency constraints, every COM process can have at most one multithread
apartment but it can contain multiple Single Thread Apartments(STAs).

8. What is MTS?
MTS stands for Microsoft Transaction Server provides another style of server
programming. MTS provides server objects must be implemented in the form of
DLLs that are to be hosted by MTS surrogate processes. MTS provides context
objects for these server objects so that they can participate in transaction.

9. What is RFX and where is it used?
RFX is the acronym for Record Field Exchange. The MFC framework can move
data back and forth between the database and the member variables of your
CRecordSet by using record field exchange which works very much like the
Dialog Data Exchange mechanism used by the dialogs and controls.

10. What is the use of CRecordSet :: dynamic?
This type uses a dynamic cursor which allows scrolling in both directions. This
type of record set allow only forward scrolling will not reflect any changes made
to the database.

11. What are the steps to create sample database?
The steps are:-
i) Start MS Access
iii) Populate the table

12. Write the general syntax to create a table. Give one example.
CREATETABLE: table-name({column name data type},……….)

13. How to use Single Row Functions?
For functions such as CRecordSet:: GetField Value () which work on a single
row then you set the current row within row set. This is done with the set row
SetCursorPosition () member in CRecordSet.

14. What are Data transfer and its two structures?
Transferring data between application are accomplished through the one data
object interface which provides a mechanism for transferring data and also for
notifications of change in the data.
The two structures are:-

15. List the MFCWinIent classes
i) CInternetSession
ii) CHttpConnectin
iii) CFtpConnection
iv) CGopherConnection
v) CInternetFile
vi) ChttpFile
vii) CFtpFileFind
viii) CGopherFileFind
ix) CinternetException

16. List the advantages of WinInet over Winsock
1. Caching2. Security
3. Web proxy access
4. Buffered I/O
5. Easy API
6. User Friendly
17. Define ISAPI Server Extensions.
An ISAPI Server Extension is program that runs in response to a GET or POST
request from a client program. The Browser can pass parameters to the
programs, which are often values that the browser user types into edit, controls,
selects from list boxes and so forth. It typically sends back HTML code based on
those parameter values.
18. List MFC ISAPI Server Extension classes
i) CHttpServer
ii) CHttpServerContext
iii) CHtmlStream

19. Define WINSOCK.
Winsock is the lowest level Windows API for TCP/IP programming. Part of the
1. Enumerators
2. Data source objects
3. Commands
4. Row sets
5. Errors
6. Transaction objects.

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