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Advanced Database Technology CS2029 - Two mark Question bank

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Please find the two mark questions bank with answers below for Advanced Database Technology - CS2029 subject related to computer science engineering (CSE) branch. Analog and digital communication question bank with answer. Please do cross refer it before using it. These is for the Anna University syllabus - regulation 2008. Please feel free to share you feedback and comments so that i can improve this blog.

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1. Define Distributed Database.
A logically interrelated collection of shared data (and a description of this data) physically distributed over a computer network.

2. Define Distributed DBMS.
The software system that permits the management of the distributed database and makes the distribution transparent to users.

3. Define Distributed processing.
A centralized database that can be accessed over a computer network.

4. Define Parallel DBMS.
A DBMS running across multiple processors and disks that is designed to execute operations in parallel, whenever possible, in order to improve performance.

5. What are the main architectures for parallel DBMS ?
Shared Memory
Shared Disk
Shared nothing

6. What is Homogeneous and Heterogeneous DDBMS ?
In Homogeneous system, all sites use the same DBMS product. In Heterogeneous system, sites may run different DBMS products.

7. Define Global Conceptual Schema.
as if it were not distributed. It contains definitions of entities, relationships, constraints, security and integrity information. It provides physical data independence from the distributed environment.

8. What are the types of Fragmentation?
The two types of fragmentation are
1. Horizontal fragmentation: subset of tuples.
2. Vertical fragmentation: subset of attributes.

9. What are the objectives of definition and allocation of fragments?
The main objectives are:
Locality of reference.
Improved reliability and availability
Acceptable performance
Balanced storage capacities and cost
Minimal communication costs.

10. What are the four alternative strategies regarding placement of data?
The four alternative strategies regarding placement of data are:
Complete replication
Selective replication

11. What are the rules that have to be followed during fragmentation?
The three correctness rules are:
- Completeness: ensure no loss of data
- Reconstruction: ensure Functional dependency preservation
- Disjoint ness: ensure minimal data redundancy.

12. What are the objectives of concurrency control?
- To be resistant to site and communication failure.
- To permit parallelism to satisfy performance requirements.
- To place few constraints on the structure of atomic actions.

13. What is multiple-copy consistency problem?
It is a problem that occurs when there is more than one copy of data item in different locations and when the changes are made only in some copies not in all copies.

14. What are the two approaches in distributed environment?
Locking guarantees that the concurrent execution is equivalent to some unpredictable serial execution of those transactions.

15. What are the types of Locking protocols?
- Centralized 2 phase locking
- Primary 2 phase locking
- Distributed 2 phase locking
- Majority locking

16. What are the failures in distributed DBMS?
The loss of message
The failure of a communication link
The failure of a site
Network partitioning

17. Define coordinator and participant.
Every global transaction has one site that acts as the coordinator (or transaction manager) for that transaction, which is generally the site at which the transaction was initiated. Sites at which the global transaction has agents are called participants (or resource managers).

18. Define unilateral abort.
If a participant votes to abort, then it is free to abort the transaction immediately; in fact any site is free to abort a transaction at any time up until it votes to commit. This type of abort is known as unilateral abort.

19. Give the states of the coordinator
The four states of the coordinator are:

20. Define Pessimistic protocols.
Pessimistic protocols choose consistency of the database over availability and hence do not allow transactions to execute in a partition if there is no guarantee that consistency can be maintained. The protocol uses pessimistic control algorithm.

21. What is replication?
The process of generating and reproducing multiples copies of data at one or more sites is called replication.

22. What are synchronous and asynchronous replications?
In synchronous replication the replicated data is updated immediately when the source data is updated. This is done by using 2PC protocol. In asynchronous replication the target data is updated after the source database has been modified.

23. What is data ownership? What are the types of ownership?
Data ownership relates to which site has the privilege to update the data. The main types of ownership are master/slave, workflow, and update-anywhere.

24. What are the implementation issues in data replication?
The main implementation issues are
Transactional updates
Snapshots and database triggers
Conflict detection and resolution

25. What are the mechanisms proposed for conflict resolution?
The mechanisms proposed for conflict resolution are
o Earliest and latest timestamps
o Site priority
o Additive and average updates
o Minimum and maximum values
o User defined
o Hold for manual resolution

26. What is generic relational algebra tree?
The relational algebra tree formed by applying the reconstruction algorithm is known as the is generic relational algebra tree.

27. What are the Benefits of replication?
Replication provides a number of benefits, including improved performance, increased reliability & data availability, and support for mobile computing & data warehousing.

28. What are the types of replication?
Read-only snapshots
Updateable snapshots
Multimaster replication
procedural replication

29. Define Snapshot logs.
A snapshot log is a table that keeps track of changes to a master table. A snapshot log can be created using the CREATE SNAPSHOT LOG statement.

30. Define database links.
Database links define a communication path from one Oracle database to another database.

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